Heat the oil in a large saucepan over medium heat. Add the garlic and ginger and sauté until fragrant, about 1 minute.
Add the red peppers, curry paste and turmeric, reduce the heat to medium-low to prevent burning, and cook for 2-3 more minutes, until fragrant.
Add the stock, coconut milk, and season with salt. Turn off the heat, purée with an immersion blender and return to a simmer. Cover and simmer for 15-18 minutes, until flavorful. If you don’t have an immersion blender, you can purée the soup in a regular blender after simmering. Stir in lime juice and adjust seasoning if necessary.
Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. Add the noodles and cook according to the package directions. Drain the noodles, return to the pot and toss with oil to prevent sticking.
For the shrimp, whisk together the cilantro, lime juice, canola oil and salt in a large bowl. Adjust the seasoning to taste.
Bring a large pot of salted water to a simmer. Add the shrimp and poach until they are pink and curled into a C shape. Drain the shrimp and cut into small pieces. Toss with the cilantro dressing.
To assemble the soup, divide the noodles between four bowls. Top with cilantro-lime shrimp, ladle in curry broth and garnish with cilantro, green onions, mint leaves, lime wedges, bean sprouts and peanuts.