Preheat the oven to 375°F.
In a large skillet, heat the olive oil and garlic until the garlic starts to toast and turn golden. Add the piquillo peppers and cook for 5 minutes on medium-low heat, stirring regularly. Add the sherry vinegar, salt and almonds. Cook for 5 minutes, then turn off the heat and let the sauce sit on the stove for 10 minutes. Transfer to a blender and blend until smooth and fluffy. Season to taste.
Dry the salmon with paper towels and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Heat a large skillet or grill over medium heat with 1 tablespoon oil. When hot, add the salmon skin side-up. Sear until golden brown, then transfer to a baking sheet and finish cooking in the oven for 8-10 minutes.
Add all of the citrus vinaigrette ingredients to a blender or food processor except for the oil. Purée, then slowly drizzle in the oil with the motor running. Season to taste.
Combine all of the chickpea salad ingredients and the citrus vinaigrette in a bowl. Season to taste.
To serve, divide the chickpea salad between plates. Top with salmon and drizzle with romesco sauce.